Tuesday, December 31, 2019
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald takes place in New York in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and focuses on life during the Roaring Twenties. This time period can also be referred to as the Jazz Age, where music was highly influenced and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢jazzingÃ¢â¬â¢ the classics was an issue thought to be a sign of the Ã¢â¬Å"creeping vulgarization of cultureÃ¢â¬ (Mansell 5). The jazz age began after World War 1 and ended at the beginning of the Great Depression in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. This is the era of dancing, drinking, and spending. People were partying and acting immoral. Spouses had affairs, women known as Ã¢â¬Å"flappersÃ¢â¬ flaunted their bodies, and everything was about status and money. F. Scott Fitzgerald began writing as the twenties were beginning to roar. FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The GreatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The author is well-known for dating his scenes Ã¢â¬Å"by putting in them specific details his readers would associate with a particular yearÃ¢â¬ (Mans ell 3). Examples of contemporary music in The Great Gatsby include pieces by Paul Whiteman, Fats Waller, and Van Schenck. Ã¢â¬Å"In The Great Gatsby, the orchestras in DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s Louisville are said to set Ã¢â¬Ëthe rhythm of the yearÃ¢â¬â¢ like the Ã¢â¬ËBeale Street BluesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âthe year 1918 and Ã¢â¬ËThree OÃ¢â¬â¢Clock in the MorningÃ¢â¬â¢, played at one of GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s partiesÃ¢â¬âthe year 1922Ã¢â¬ (Mansell 3). Gatsby also used examples in his other novels such as This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, and The Diamond as Big as the Ritz. Even the orchestra in The Great Gatsby reflects on the theme in the novel as the vulgarization of European culture by the way they Ã¢â¬Å"looked at one another and smiled as though this [playing classical music as jazz] wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ a little below themÃ¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 42). The orchestra also plays a role in setting the mood for people at the party. As they finished playing Vladimir TostoffÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â ¬Å"Jazz History of the WorldÃ¢â¬ , Nick states Ã¢â¬Å"girls were putting their heads on menÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders in a puppyish way, girls were swooning backward playfully into menÃ¢â¬â¢s armsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 50), insinuating that the music made the women vulnerable and increased their need for comfort. The effect of jazz music is also shown when a young woman begins
Monday, December 23, 2019
Comparing the Inuits and the north-west people We have been studying the people of the North West and Inuits. In this essay I will describe their differences and explain why they are different. They have a large variety of differences which had a large effect on lifestyles. Housing The Inuits lives in snow houses known as Igloos. They houses were made out of snow as it was plentiful in the area they lived in. The snow was many metres thick so it was ideal for insulating Igloos; this meant they kept at a comfortable 16Ã °C especially when the females cooked food. The North-West people lived in large wooden houses. Wood was the ideal building resource as it was easily available from the woodland and forests surrounding them. It was alsoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This also meant they didnt have to spend most of their time hunting and gathering food. The difference in climate between the Inuits and the North-West people was due to their position on the Earth. They both lived in totally different environments and this also controlled other factors such as what they had available to eat. Each group adapted to their living environment and habitat so to them their life was normal. It would be difficult for them to survive in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s environments as they had grew up and learnt how to survive in the area they lived in. Hunting The Inuit people had to go out and hunt for food; this was the job for the men. In the summer when the ice melted they hunted from boats known as Kayaks. The kayak could move efficiently through the water so the hunter could get close to the prey without being heard. They usually hunted for ringed seals as it was an all -year round mammal so it could be hunted in the winter as well as in the summer. It also provided essential vitamins and minerals which were found in fruits, but as they didnt have fruits in their habitat they had to rely on seals. The Inuit hunter would use a sharp harpoon to stab the seal; he would then drag it up and take it inland. Caribou and whale was also hunted for their skin and certain parts of their bodies which would make good tools for carving in their spare time. For the north-west people, the ocean was the major source of foodShow MoreRelatedThe Great Warming By Brian Fagan1842 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Medieval Warming Period to the current global warming faced today. The Great Warming discusses positive and negative connections between climate change and human civilizations across the world, starting in Europe and working its way into Asia, North America, South America, Africa, and even covering the arctic ice caps; however, throughout the book, Fagan has a hard time connecting his various ideas back to one main topic and can easily stray from his point about the effects of climate change.Read MoreThe Mystery Of Ghost Stories2374 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesout distress calls that were heard by many different ships and listening posts. From these calls, it was hard to know what was happening on the ship but the listeners knew it was something awful (Matthews). The first message received by the rescue people was, Ã¢â¬Å"All officers including ca ptain are dead, lying in chartroom and bridge. Possibly whole crew dead,Ã¢â¬ (Matthews). The next messages that were received were a series of indecipherable morse codes that were followed by the message Ã¢â¬Å"I die,Ã¢â¬ (Matthews)Read MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On Canada s National Parks2271 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesnative species specifically affected by climate change and invasive species in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks and why? 3. What can you do to reduce climate change in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks? 4. How does the climate change in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks affect North America as a whole? 5. How do you think that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s government should react towards climate change inside and outside of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks? 6. What are the leading causes of climate change in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks? 7. What are the environmentalRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On Canadas National Parks2271 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesnative species specifically affected by climate change and invasive species in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks and why? 3. What can you do to reduce climate change in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks? 4. How does the climate change in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks affect North America as a whole? 5. How do you think that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s government should react towards climate change inside and outside of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks? 6. What are the leading causes of climate change in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national parks? 7. What are the environmental
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Sample Report A Formal Report Sample Reports A FORMAL REPORT THE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON BUSINESS EMPLOYEES AND PROGRAMS OFFERED BY EMPLOYERS TO MANAGE EMPLOYEE STRESS Prepared for Dr. Robert J. Olney Southwest Texas State University Prepared by Charles Dishinger Nancy Howard Bill Kiagler Sherry Seabrooke Donna Tucker November 29, 20Ã¢â¬â S-29 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. We will write a custom essay sample on Sample Ã¢â¬â Report Writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now All rights reserved. Sample Reports ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLESÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. iii LIST OF FIGURESÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ v ABSTRACTÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ SECTION I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDYÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Statement of the ProblemÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Significance of the StudyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Scope of the StudyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢ â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Review of Related LiteratureÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Methods of the StudyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Source of DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. l S-30 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. iv 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sample Reports iii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Programs Offered by Employers to Manage Stress Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ S-31 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Page 8 Sample Reports iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Age Distribution of Respondents Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2. Negative Effects of Stress on Work Performance Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ S-32 6 7 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports v Abstract This study was conducted to determine the effects of stress on employees and the methods employers use to manage employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ stress. It was limited to the perceptions of Central Texas business employees, who were selected using a nonprobability, convenience sampling method. A questionnaire consisting of three parts was used to collect primary data. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted using simple statistical techniques. The findings of the data indicated that the areas found to be most negatively affected by stress were job satisfaction/morale, courtesy, creativity, and productivity. In addition, personal appearance and absenteeism were listed as the areas least affected by stress. According to the results of the tudy, employers today are offering a wide variety of needed programs to manage the stress of their employees. One of the main conclusions drawn from the study was that stress does negatively affect the work performance of employees. Therefore, stress is not just an individual issue but an issue that must be addressed by both the employer and the employee; the work performance areas negatively affected have a direct effect on the company as a whole. S-33 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports The Effects of Stress on Business Employees nd Programs Offered by Employers to Manage Employee Stress Section I Introduction to the Study Introduction Today, many organizations and employees are experiencing the effects of stress on work performance. The effects of stress can be either positive or negative. What is perceived as positive stress by one person may be perceived as negative stress by another, since everyone perceives situations differently. According to Barden (2001), negative stress is becoming a major illness in the work environment, and it can debilitate employees and be costly to employers. Managers need to identify those suffering from negative stress and implement programs as a defense against stress. These programs may reduce the impact stress has on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ work performance. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to determine the negative effects of stress on employees and the methods employers use to manage employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ stress. Significance of the Study There are three primary groups that may benefit from this study. The first group, consisting of employees in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business organizations, may learn to identify ways that stress negatively affects their work performance. Identifying the negative effects may enable them to take necessary action to cope with stress. By sharing this knowledge, employees can act as a vehicle to help management implement appropriate stress reduction programs. The second group that may benefit from this study is employers who may gain insight as to how stress is actually negatively affecting S-34 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 2 employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ work performance. Finally, educators can use these findings as a valuable guide to incorporate into their curriculum. By emphasizing to students the importance of developing programs to deal with stress, the students may be able to transfer this knowledge to the workplace, thereby improving the quality of the work environment. Scope of the Study This study was limited to the perceptions of full-time business employees as to the negative effects that stress has on work performance and the steps that employers are taking to manage stress. For the purpose of this study, what constitutes full-time employment is defined by the employer. This study was restricted to businesses operating in the Central Texas area. The Central Texas area encompasses all communities within Hays, Kendall, Travis, and Williamson counties. For the purpose of this study, stress is defined as disruptive or disquieting influences that negatively affect an individual in the workplace. Data for this study were collected during the fall of 2002. Review of Related Literature Barden (2001), a freelance writer specializing in health care and a former managing editor of Commerce and Health, stated the importance of wellness programs and gave specific examples of corporations that are successfully implementing such rograms. The Morrison Company currently saves $8. 33 for every dollar spent on wellness by offering programs such as weight loss, exercise, and back care. Axon Petroleum estimates that wellness programs will save $1. 6 million each year in health care costs for its 650 employees. In addition to Morrison and Axon Petroleum, Barden cited the savings for six other companies. According to the Wellness Bureau of America , the success of these companies offers concrete proof that wellness programs pay off by lowering health care costs, reducing absenteeism, and increasing productivity. Foster (2002), a professional speaker on stress-management, surveyed midlevel managers and found stress to be a major determinant in worker productivity. According to the study, the primary areas affected by stress are employee morale, absenteeism, and decision making abilities. By recognizing that a problem exists and by addressing the issue, managers can reduce stressful activities and increase worker performance in the business organization. Harrold and Wayland (2002) reported that increasing stress affects morale, productivity, organizational efficiency, absenteeism, and profitability for both individuals and the organization. The problem for businesses today is knowing how S-35 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 3 to determine stressful areas in their organizations and how to use constructive confrontation methods to reduce stress and improve efficiency. According to the authors, organizations that make a positive effort to deal with stress not only help build trust among their employees, but also increase the productivity of their employees and the organization as a whole. Maurer (2002) stated that stress-induced illnesses are prevalent in the workplace today, and stress is the problem of the sufferer and the employer. Stress causes absenteeism and can lead to other problems such as drug addiction, alcoholism, depression, and poor job performance. According to Maurer, the annual Barlow Corporation Forum on Human Resource Issues and Trends reported that large numbers of companies noticed severe levels of stress exhibited by employees. The forumÃ¢â¬â¢s panelists agreed that more needed to be done in the workplace to help employees manage stress. Some of the suggestions were to expand wellness programs, offer stress-management seminars, and teach staff how to balance work and family life. Maurer also noted that Olympic TeamTech, a computer management company, has dealt with employee stress by providing training programs, monitoring employee concerns, and meeting once a month to be proactive instead of reactive. Olympic TeamTechÃ¢â¬â¢s turnover is less than the industry average. Schorr (2001), a stress-management consultant, stated that stress causes problems in the workplace which negatively affect employee health and organizational productivity. Stress can lead to problems such as job dissatisfaction, alcoholism, absenteeism, physical ailments, and poor job performance. If managers know how to prevent and cope with stress, productivity can be increased. Many companies instituted stress-management programs that led to a decline in absenteeism, a decrease in sickness and accident costs, and/or an increase in job performance. Schorr reported that a stress inventory, available from a stress-management program, can assist executives and managers in assessing employee stress. The inventory can identify the sources of stress, which may include physical elements as well as other factors. Once these sources have been assessed, the program can provide the necessary skills for coping with the problems, and participants can learn that there are alternative ways of reacting to stress. Methods of the Study Source of Data Data for this study were collected using a questionnaire developed by a group of students at Southwest Texas State University. The questionnaire was divided into S-36 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 4 three parts. Part one consisted of a list of 15 work performance areas that may be negatively affected by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s level of stress. Respondents were asked to indicate whether stress increased, decreased, or had not changed their work performance in each area. They were also asked to indicate from the list of 15 work performance areas the area that was the most negatively affected by stress and the area that was the least negatively affected by stress. In the second part of the questionnaire, a list of 17 programs was provided and the respondents were asked to indicate which programs their companies had implemented to manage stress. Part three was designed to collect demographic data for a respondent profile, including full-time employee classification and age group. A copy of the questionnaire is contained in Appendix A on page 12. Sample Selection The respondents involved in this survey were employees working in companies located in Central Texas. A nonprobability, convenience sampling technique was used to collect primary data. Each member of the research team was responsible for distributing three questionnaires to members of the sample. To ensure confidentiality, respondents were given self-addressed, stamped envelopes in which to return their completed questionnaires to Southwest Texas State University. Controls were used to eliminate duplication of the esponses. Statistical Methods Simple statistical techniques were used to tabulate the results of this study. The primary data were analyzed using a percent of response. To compute the percent of response, the number of responses to each choice was divided by the total number of respondents who answered the question. In question one, the percents of responses for the negative effects of stres s on the 15 work performance areas were reported. The results of the next two questions were tabulated by totaling the number of respondents who chose an area they believed was least or most affected by stress. The fourth question reported the percent of respondents whose employers offered the listed programs to manage stress. Questions five and six asked the respondents to indicate if they were considered full-time employees and to indicate their age group. Limitations of the Study This study may be limited through the use of a questionnaire as a data collection instrument. Because questionnaires must generally be brief, areas that may have been affected by stress may not have been included in the questionnaire. S-37 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports Also, all programs that may be available to employees for managing stress may not have been included in the study. The study may also be limited by the use of a nonprobability, convenience sampling method. The sample of business employees for the study was chosen for convenience and may not be representative of the total population of business employees. Care should be taken when generalizing these fi ndings to the entire population. Finally, the use of simple statistical techniques may introduce an element of subjectivity into the interpretation and analysis of the data. All attempts have been made to minimize the effects of these limitations on the study. S-38 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 6 Section II Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations Introduction This study was designed to determine the effects of stress on employees and to discover methods employers use to manage employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ stress. Sixty questionnaires were distributed to business employees in the Central Texas area, and the response rate was 78. 3%. This section includes the Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations. Findings The findings will be presented in three sections according to the following characteristics: Demographic Profile, Areas of Job Performance Affected by Stress, and Programs Employers Offer Employees to Manage Stress. Demographic Profile All returned responses from the sample were considered full-time employees by their employers. The respondents were also asked to indicate their age group; all age ranges were represented in the results, as shown in Figure 1. The breakdown consisted of 2. 1% under the age of 20, 33. 7% between 20 and 29, 29. 4% between the ages of 30 and 39, 26. % between 40 and 49, 5. 4% between 50 and 59, and 3. 3% were 60 and over. AGE GROUP 5 1 Ã¢â¬â Less than 20 1 6 2. 1% S-39 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26. 1% 5 Ã¢â¬â 50 to 59 Figure 1: Age Distribution of Respondents 29. 4% 4 Ã¢â¬â 40 to 49 3 33. 7% 3 Ã¢â¬â 30 to 39 2 4 2 Ã¢â¬â 20 to 29 5. 4% 6 Ã¢â¬â 60 or over 3. 3% Sample Reports 7 Areas of Job Performance Af fected by Stress The respondents were given a list of work performance areas that might be affected by stress and were asked to identify whether stress increased, decreased, or had no change on their work performance. Only respondents who indicated stress negatively affected an area were considered in these findings. Of the 15 areas listed, four areas were identified as having a response rate of more than 50. 0%. These areas were as follows: job satisfaction/morale (73. 9%), courtesy (65. 2%), accuracy (52. 7%), and creativity (51. 6%). Similarly, Schorr (2001) stated that a significant number of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ creativity is negatively affected by stress. Also, Harrold and Wayland (2002) agreed that morale is strongly affected by stress. Falling within the range of a 30. 0 to 50. 0% response rate were cooperation (49. %), organizational skills (46. 3%), initiative (45. 2%), productivity (42. 8%), alertness (39. 4%), decision making abilities (39. 1%), and perseverance (35. 5%). Harrold and Wayland (2002) established that increasing stress and anxiety are having a negative influence on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational efficiency and productivity. The findings that negatively affect work per formance are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Negative Effects of Stress on Work Performance 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S-40 10 42. 8% 73. 9% 39. 1% 52. 7% 51. 6% 28. 0% 46. 3% 65. 2% 20 30 40 Productivity Job Satisfaction/Morale Decision Making Abilities Accuracy Creativity Attention to Appearance Organizational Skills Courtesy Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 50 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 60 49. 5% 45. 2% 26. 6% 39. 4% 35. 5% 25. 8% 28. 3% 70 Cooperation Initiative Reliability Alertness Perseverance Tardiness Absenteeism 80 Sample Reports 8 Central Texas employees indicated the area they believed was most affected by stress and the area they believed was least affected by stress. According to the results, job satisfaction and productivity were thought to be most affected by stress. On the other end of the scale, areas least affected by stress were personal appearance and absenteeism. However, SchorrÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) study found that, on the average, individuals experiencing stress are more inclined to be absent or tardy. Programs Employers Offer Employees to Manage Stress Question four listed 17 programs offered by employers for managing stress. Respondents were asked to indicate which programs their companies had implemented to manage stress. The responses for each program are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Programs Offered by Employers to Manage Stress. TYPE OF PROGRAM Insurance RESPONSES 72% Breaks Educational Assistance/Reimbursement 51. 0% Access for Disabled 42. 6% Alternate Schedule 34. 0% Employee Assistance Programs 34. 0% Wellness Programs 34. 0% Flextime 29. 8% Stress Management Seminars 29. 8% Training Programs 29. 8% Piped Music 17. 2% Assigned Parking 17. 0% Employee Empowerment Programs 17. 0% Ergonomically Correct Furniture 17. 0% Financial Counseling 8. 5% On-Site/Assistance with Child Care S-41 69. 2% 4. 3% Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 9 Insurance received the highest number of responses (72. 0%), whereas, therapy received the lowest (2. 1%). Playing classical music and creating a comfortable work environment were found by Foster (2002) to be low cost stress reduction programs. Although these are inexpensive programs to implement, a relatively small response rate was given for piped music (17. 2%) and ergonomically correct furniture (17. 0%). Maurer (2002) stated that it is necessary for companies to design programs that enable employees to assess stressful situations and develop a rational mode of behavior. In contrast to MaurerÃ¢â¬â¢s research, only 17. 0% of the respondents indicated that Employee Empowerment Programs are being offered by their employer. A response rate of 34. 0% in the category of wellness programs/on-site fitness facilities was obtained. Barden (2001) reported programs that improve an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s physical condition are both a positive and an effective method of managing stress. The remaining methods for managing stress were varied. Listed in decreasing percentages, they are as follows: breaks (69. 2%), educational assistance/ reimbursement (51. %), access for disabled (42. 6%), alternative schedules (34. 0%), Employee Assistance Programs (34. 0%), Wellness Programs (34. 0%) flextime (29. 8%), stress management seminars/classes (29. 8%), training programs (29. 8%), assigned parking (17. 0%), financial counseling (8. 5%), and on-site/assistance with child care (4. 3%). Conclusions On the basis of the findings, several conclusions concerning the effects of st ress on Central Texas business employees can be drawn. The findings of this study indicated stress does negatively affect the work performance of employees. Job satisfaction and productivity were indicated as two areas most affected by work-related stress. Therefore, stress cannot be considered just an individual issue because reduced job satisfaction and lower productivity has a direct effect on the company as a whole. From this study, it can be concluded that employers have realized the importance of managing stress in the workplace because of the wide variety of programs now offered to manage stress. Of all the programs offered by employers, insurance is the most frequently offered means for managing stress. Because insurance acts as a security net for employees and is offered the most, it can be inferred that employers contend that insurance is the most effective means for managing stress. S-42 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 10 Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions in this study, the following recommendations are made: 1. 2. Employers should conduct a survey of the programs they already offer to discover which programs are the most effective for managing their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ stress. 3. Employees should share their ideas for managing stress with their employers in order to help their employers implement appropriate stress reduction programs. 4. Educators should incorporate into their business curriculum discussions of stress in the workplace and ways to manage stress. 5. S-43 Employers should offer various stress reduction programs to help employees manage stress because stress is prevalent in the workplace. Additional research should be done. First, other areas negatively affected by stress should be studied to determine if stress affects other aspects of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s life. In addition, other factors should be examined to learn what the personal and work-related causes and symptoms of stress are for an individual. Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports 11 Bibliography Barden, Nancy Ray. Ã¢â¬Å"Wellness Programs: Everyone Wins. Ã¢â¬ Commerce and Health, November 2001, 28Ã¢â¬â42. Foster, Lucy Barnes. Ã¢â¬Å"Workplace Stress: Changing the Pattern. Ã¢â¬ Sales and Marketing Journal (2002), 32Ã¢â¬â33. Harrold, Robert and Wayland, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"New Methods to Reduce Workplace Stress. Ã¢â¬ Industrial Concepts, June 2002, 19Ã¢â¬â21. Maurer, Marcia K. Is Stress Running Your Life? Ã¢â¬ Modern Office Innovation, February 2002, 27Ã¢â¬â28. Schorr, Leslie. Ã¢â¬Å"Coping with Stress, Boosting Productivity. Ã¢â¬ Employment News, Spring 2001, 23Ã¢â¬â26. S-44 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Sample Reports Appendix A Questionnaire The Effects of Stress on Business Employees Students in the Graduate School of Business at Southwest Texas State University are conducting this survey to determine perceptions of the effects of stress on employees. The survey also is designed to determine efforts employers are making to help employees manage stress. Please return this questionnaire in the enclosed postage-paid envelope by Friday, November 8. 1. How does stress most often affect you at work? Please mark one response per line. AREA AFFECTED Productivity Job Satisfaction/Morale Absenteeism Decision Making Abilities Accuracy Creativity Attention to Personal Appearance Organizational Skills Courtesy Cooperation Initiative Reliability Alertness Perseverance T di S-45 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. INCREA SE DECREA SE NO CHANGE Sample Reports 13 2. Which one area from question 1 do you believe is most affected by stress? 3. Which one area from question 1 do you believe is least affected by stress? 4. Which of the following means for managing stress does your employer offer? Please mark all that apply. __ Employee Assistance Program On-Site/Assistance with Child Care Assigned Parking Employee Empowerment Programs Educational Assistance/Reimbursement Breaks Wellness Program/On-Site Fitness Facility Financial Counseling Access for Disabled Stress Management Seminars/Classes Training Programs Therapy Alternative Schedules (part-time, time off for family, etc. ) Flextime Piped Music Ergonomically Correct Furniture Insurance (security net for employee/family) Other (please specify) Note: Questions 5 and 6 are included in this questionnaire as a means of developing a demographic profile of our respondents. 5. Are you classified as a full-time employee by your employer? Yes 6. No Please check your age group. Less than 20 20 to 29 30 to 39 40 to 49 50 to 59 60 or over Thank you for taking time to help us. We value your input. S-46 Copyright Ã © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. How to cite Sample Ã¢â¬â Report Writing, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Children stereotypes on tv Essay Stereotypes in Childrens Television: The Proud FamilyThe Proud Family is a childrens program that runs daily on The Disney Channel and on Saturday mornings on ABC Kids. It is a TV-G rated program. The show is about an African-American family with the last name Proud. There is a mom, dad, three kids, and a grandmother. The main character of the show is the oldest daughter named Penny Proud who is probably in junior high. Also, some of Pennys friends are in the show. All of the characters in this show are stereotyped by many things such as race and gender, including Penny. The first stereotype I noticed about the show was the way the cartoonist drew the different characters. All of the African-American characters were drawn with enormous lips and huge noses. Meanwhile, the two Caucasian characters in the show were both drawn with wider heads and seemed smarter than the other characters in the show. Also, all the African-American characters talked in a dialect while the Caucasian charac ters talked slower. In addition, all of the African-American characters all called each other brotha, which is another stereotype, because not all African-Americans call each other that or like to be called that. There are many stereotypes made about the main character Penny. First, her race is the main issue in the show. She is shown drawn the same way as the other African-American, with the bigger features described before. Penny also has a kind of attitude about her, which is also often associated with African-American females. Not only is she stereotyped by race, but by gender as well. She is shown as the smart and understanding friend, probably because she is the main girl character in the show. For example, when her friend, Dlionay, has a problem with a boy, Penny is the one that helps Dlionay out and gives her advice and helps her try to win back the boy. However, there were also other gender stereotypes in the show as well. The girl, Dlionay was often shown as the kind of damsel in distress. A few times a boy was sent to rescue her. For example, one of her friends was stuck out in the water and instead of getting him herself, she plead to the other boy to please save him. This shows the stereotype that men are stronger and braver than women and that women need their protection. Other than Penny and Dlionay, there were other characters in The Proud Family that fit the typical minority stereotype as well. There were two radio hosts along with a few others that fit the stereotype that minority characters are goofy and lazy. For example, the radio announcers sang and made funny voices and also said silly things. Then, they were in a way stereotyped as lazy because but there were overweight and ate all the food at the eating contest, and these are things that are associated with laziness. All of the stereotypes shown in the program help to reinforce societys views of gender and racial identity. The way that the characters in this program were stereotyped might lead children to believe that all African-Americans call each other brotha and then a child that watches this show might call someone African-American that one day and get into trouble. This program did nothing to try and break away from what society views a specific race as, and instead the program reinfo rced it by using typical stereotypes of the African-American population. My reaction to the character of Penny is mixed. I did like her as a character because she was compassionate and cared about her friends and family, and I believe this can help to teach children that are watching this show that these values are important in life. However, I wish they would have gotten away from the typical African-American stereotype and would have not made Penny with such enlarged features and not talk so much the way she did. I would like them to change this because I feel that in a way they cartoonists are making fun of African-Americans by over exaggerating their facial features and speech dialect. Also, I dont believe with these characteristics there can be an
Friday, November 29, 2019
The issue concerning the correlation between intelligence and race has aroused heated debates with opposing groups citing different reasons for the variation in IQ test performance among different racial groups.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Intelligence and Race specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The invention of intelligent quotient (IQ) testing heightened the tension on the issue of intelligence and race. IQ tests constitute one of the major components of evaluating intelligence. To establish the relationship between intelligence and race, professionals in the fields of anthropology, biology and sociology have embarked on extensive studies to obtain clues that support or disapprove claims relating to the relationship between intelligence and race. IQ tests have demonstrated particular trends regarding IQ levels among individuals of different genetic makeup. Since the genetic makeup of an individual largel y defines his or her race, IQ tests provide evidence on the issue of intelligence from a racial perspective. In a certain survey, repeated tests indicated a lower IQ score among Blacks as compared to Whites. Furthermore, the mean IQ score among individuals from East Asia and those of Jewish descent appeared to be higher than that of Whites (Rushton Jensen 2006). The mean IQ scores among individuals of Hispanic descent lied between the averages obtained for Blacks and Whites. Varying levels of cognitive ability and differences in academic, economic and social development in different regions further highlight the link between intelligence and race. Other tests such as the Geographical distribution of intelligence, Intelligence and brain size relationship and Heritability of intelligence have also suggested variations regarding intelligence among Asians, Caucasians and Blacks (Rushton Jensen 2006).Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! G et your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, studies show that genetic inheritance influences intelligence. This forms a basis for evaluating intelligence from a genetic perspective. The lack of appropriate means to identify different races in a distinct manner makes it considerably difficult to relate races and intelligence levels. It is challenging to categorize races from a genetic perspective considering the lack of variation in evolution. Research shows that genetic variations were random and resulted largely due to social aspects rather than biological changes (Sternberg et al., 2005). In this regard, social and environmental aspects are the only credible means of explaining variations in intelligent levels. Research shows that individuals from disadvantaged groups score poorly on IQ tests irrespective of their race. This is because these individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ socio-economic factors are unfavorable. Disadvantaged groups face issues such as malnutrition, exposur e to toxins and lack of resources. These factors largely contribute to low IQ performance. A large number of tests regarding intelligence and race focus more on geographical locations rather than particular races (Sternberg et al., 2005). Therefore, conclusions drawn from such tests are subject to environmental and cultural factors rather than race. Furthermore, not substantial data supports the relationship between an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s head size and his or her level of intelligence. Therefore, the hypothesis relating large head size among Asians and their high level of intelligence is not substantial, and thus unviable in supporting the relationship between intelligence and race. Employing the phenotype approach in evaluating the correlation between intelligence and race is the most appropriate way to categorized varying intelligence levels among different races.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Intelligence and Race specifically for you for o nly $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although this approach would establish the relationship between intelligence and the traits of certain individuals, a particular race has a certain dominant trait. However, the dominance of certain phenotypes due to various factors may limit the results of this approach (Sternberg et al., 2005). Several factors determine an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s level of intelligence. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude that a certain race has a high intelligence level. There is a lot of complexity involved in relating intelligence to various hypothesized aspects. References Rushton, J. P., Jensen, A. R. (2006). The Totality of Available Evidence Shows the Race IQ Gap Still Remains. Psychological Science, 17(10), 921-922. Sternberg, R., Kidd, K., Grigorenko, E. (2005). Intelligence, race, and genetics. AmÃ psychol., 60(1), 46-59. This case study on Intelligence and Race was written and submitted by user Ivy Daniels to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Identify and discuss how entrepreneurs can impact on the economy Introduction Identify and discuss how entrepreneurs can impact on the economy IntroductionDefinition of entrepreneurshipWhat Is An Entrepreneur?Entrepreneurship Aids the EconomyRole of entrepreneurship in conceptual economyRecommendations and conclusion Related Introduction Definition of entrepreneurship There are a lot of explanations and descriptions of entrepreneurship. Intellectuals and business experts, define entrepreneurship as only the uniting of thoughts, hard work, and modifications to the changing commerce market. It furthermore involves meeting market demands; mainly it portrays the key instructions of any trade innovation. Innovation is the key factor that administers the very formation of a small trade or entrepreneurship; it can be processes or it can be products. One instance of a process could be the formation of ideas in black and white, products can refer to everything that is produced that can be kept up for sale, whether it is a latest form of glue or even a service that offers; such as, housecleaning. On the other hand, innovations can as well be anything that brings in the discoveries of new products that transform the market or form a new market, a number of of these innovations might even restore existing innovations to become the favored process or product. When an individual wishes to become an entrepreneur they prefer to be an organizer, though, not everybody is suitable to be an entrepreneur and not everybody has the essential skills to carry out successfully. What Is An Entrepreneur? A person who is capable of generating an innovative idea and fulfilling the demands of the public with an ability to organize people and resources is called an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurs are never discouraged even if their idea is rejected by anyone but they work hard to make their ideas successful. Entrepreneurs have to face various hardships and challenges as well. Entrepreneurship Aids the Economy It is agreed by most of the economists that entrepreneurship adds vitality to the economy, either a developed or developing one. The reason why the economists support the existence of the entrepreneurs is that they not just create new businesses and make innovations using their creativity but they also create employment opportunities for people by employing them for their business. Mostly, it also increases competition due to which entrepreneurs opt for new things and also go for operational as well as technological advancements that further helps them to increase their productivity. Each year around 75% new jobs are added in the economy of United States every year due to the eruption of new small businesses and this actually symbolizes 99% of all US employers. Small business are mostly self-employed by people. Entrepreneurs not just provide jobs to the people but they are also a source of security and generate social welfare as well. Schramm, president and CEO of Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, said in February 2007, The foundation is devoted to fostering entrepreneurshipÃ¢â¬ . Schramm is one of the globesÃ¢â¬â¢ foremost specialists in this field. Others have the same opinion that the benefits of small trades go further than income, Hector V. Baretto, manager of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), makes clear, Small businesses widen the base of contribution in society, generate jobs, disperse economic power and provide persons a stake in the future. Entrepreneurs innovate and innovation is a vital element in economic growth. As Peter Drucker said, The entrepreneur mostly looks for change, reacts to it and utilizes it as an opportunity. Entrepreneurs are accountable for the profitable introduction of several new products and services and also for opening fresh markets. A look at current history demonstrates that entrepreneurs were compulsory to many of the most important innovations, ones that transformed how persons live and work. From the vehicle to the airplane to computers persons with ideas and strength of mind developed these marketable advances. Small companies as well are more probable than large firms to manufacture specialty products and services and tailor made items. As Schramm has recommended, entrepreneurs offer customers with services and products for needs they did not even realize they had. Innovations enhance the quality by multiply customersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices, they augment peoples lives in abundant ways making life simple, progressive communications, offering new varieties of entertainment and better health care. Small companies in the US, e.g., innovate far in excess of huge ones do, according to the Small Business Administration; small technology firms create almost thirteen times additional patents per worker than big firms. They signify one-third of all firms in control of fifteen or more patents. According to theÃ 2006 Summary Results of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)Ã project, In spite of of the point of development and company size, entrepreneurial performance remains a vital engine of innovation and expansion for the financial system, for individual firms as, by classification, it entails attention and readiness to take benefit of vacant opportunities. The GEM plan is a multi-country study of entrepreneurship and fiscal growth. Founded and supported by Babson College (USA) and the London Business School in 1999, the study incorporated forty two nations by 2006. Global and regional institutes, such as the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, have the same opinion that entrepreneurs can play a critical role in mobilizing income and encouraging fiscal growth and socio-economic progress. This is mainly true in the emerging world, where flourishing small businesses are most important engines of job formation and poverty diminution. Role of entrepreneurship in conceptual economy Although the basic rules of entrepreneurship being used today are the same as they were used previously but the medium has radically changed, however the change has been for better and is probably the best time compared to the history for an individual to become an entrepreneur. The entrepreneurs today are defining logic for the purpose of making things to happen on an individual basis. Previously, when the entrepreneurs used to set up business, they needed huge sums of investment before they could proceed or to arrange management teams for work and to make the company operate after which they took many years to make profits but now things have drastically changed. In order to make my statements more clear, I would be giving some examples. A website titled Ã¢â¬Å"PlentyOfFish.comÃ¢â¬ is basically a free dating website and was founded by Markus Frind. The founder spends just two hours on the website each day and he manages his website but his earnings are $5-6 million per year from Google ads as around twelve million people view his page every year and the most interesting thing is that he is the only person operating his company. I would now quote another such example of Dave Lu, an entrepreneur who also earns in millions doing the same kind of work as Markus Frind. Dave is the founder of Ã¢â¬Å"FanpopÃ¢â¬ where the fans of anything on Earth can share and interact with other people. One more thing that is synonymous between the two entrepreneurs is that they are operating their business using the least expensive tools that are instantly available to them. Connecting these entrepreneurs to the economy, I would say that conceptual economy enable the entrepreneurs to use both sides of their brain i.e. both left as w ell as the right side as they are not just focusing on technical skills but on their creativity and conceptualization as well and most of the entrepreneurs are working independently. It is therefore essential for the entrepreneurs to lead in conceptual economy and go for new ventures. It was Microsoft that started Facebook that is now very successful social networking arena. Initially Facebook was popular just amongst the teenagers and the students of high school but now it is being used by people of every group. Not just it provides the opportunity of social networking but it is also beneficial for businessmen especially young entrepreneurs that can highly help boost the economy of any country. Therefore, this economic model of conceptual economy has a great impact on every aspect of the society and in the later years, the entrepreneurs would be the ones who would be the true beneficiaries but the ones who take initiatives. Recommendations and conclusion In order to encourage the entrepreneurs to start their businesses and to promote them, the government should provide certain incentives to the entrepreneurs because entrepreneurs greatly help in boosting the economy and for this the government must also take some steps that would benefit the entrepreneurs and would eventually benefit the economy as well. The government should not just promote entrepreneurship but it must also enhance entrepreneurial dynamic and it should be treated as something very vital for a government to boost economic growth. The policies designed for the government especially for the entrepreneurs will have a more momentous as well as a direct impact on the programs designed to enhance businesses. It is essential for the government to coordinate these programs in an effective manner and support them in order to avoid any confusion and to help the entrepreneurs to focus more on utilization. The entrepreneurial activity should be increased as in the end it would benefit the overall economy of the state as the participation level especially of individuals between 25-44 years of age. Government should also encourage participation of women. Commitment and investment especially in the monetary terms as well as educationally are essential for growth of any business. Governments should therefore promote education and people should at least earn the graduation degree. It is also important to develop the capacity of an individual to recognize and pursue new opportunities other than just concentrating on making them gain knowledge and get education. Higher levels of income disparity should be accommodated and in order to define a strong entrepreneurial culture. A culture should be created and entrepreneurship should be promoted in the society by the key officials and the government. Holden, Jeanne. (2008). Entrepreneurship Aids the Economy. June 29th, 2009. Retrieved from: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã america.gov/st/econ-Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã english/2008/May/20080603233010eaifas0.8230554.html Maharjan, Jay. (2009). Role of entrepreneurship in conceptual economy. June 29th, 2009. Ã Retrieved from: http://4entrepreneur.net/?p=119 More business. (2008). What Is An Entrepreneur? A Definition of Entrepreneurship. June 29th, Ã Ã Ã 2009. Retrieved from: morebusiness.com/business-entrepreneurship
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Journal - Essay Example I, for instance, can now choose fast and better clothes. This makes her like it very much and her face lights up with excitement. She is genuinely happy from her emotions and tells me that I have helped her a lot since she has an interview, the following day. I finish attending to her after one hour, to my big surprise. On looking at the clothes hanger, I notice so many clothes there. They all need to be returned, follow the correct order and I have to make sure that all their tags are checked. We already have 6 clients; so many to have at the same time. Another intern is still busy and that means I have to step in and assist in cleaning up. After finishing, I go to the donation center, where I find too many clothes heaped together like a mountain. I feel dizzy and notice too many stars swirling around my eyes. One intern works from 1pm to 5 pm. We are a total of 6 interns but after 3 pm we only have 2 interns. This is really too much work and my mind is running wild with several questions like how can I tag all of them? How can I organize them? How can I measure clothes? Etc. I take a deep breath and just relax. I feel that I hate clothes right now and I am having nightmares from clothes. My intern colleague told me once that I look like a tailor when I measure pants, men suits and thus soon I will be looking like a real professional. As I ponder where to begin, I get thinking that right now I am ok with just being a personal shopper working at a donation
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Timing of market entry strategy for Samsung Galaxy S5 - Research Paper Example More customers are using mobile phones with smart applications and features. The use of smart phones with multiple capabilities and features has become common among the global consumers. In the initial stages of the introduction of smart phones in the market, consumer uncertainty towards the new technology was higher. Over years, the customer preference has come to a level where there is enormous potential for new technologies to attract more consumers easily. Customers are looking for innovative and distinctive features in their smart phones and are experiencing more certainty in using new technologies. The prevailing customer preferences for smart phones coupled with the high end features like latest operating systems, large display, a 16 MP camera, fingerprint identification and other unique features have made it appropriate for Samsung to capture the market by introducing this product. The previous offering of Samsung in mobile phones was the Galaxy S4 which was launched in the first quarter of 2013. The Galaxy S4 was accepted widely and the product had more than 10 million pre orders. The commercial reception as well as the critical reception of the product was impressive. The Samsung Galaxy S5 was launched almost a year after the launch of Galaxy S4 as the immediate successor of the model. However, after the introduction of Samsung Galaxy S5 in the market in 2014, it was noticed that there is only a slight improvement in this model over its predecessors like Samsung Galaxy S3 and S4.
Monday, November 18, 2019
HRIS - Essay Example This problem could potentially affect all areas of business for many companies. 2. The reason why so many organizations found themselves vulnerable to the Y2K bug is because they were not disciplined when it came to phase containment. The problem was not only a result of initial legacy systems; many replacement custom systems simply replicated or converted the old programming logic without fixing them. Along with a company's unwillingness to research to find a true fix to the problem, many waited too long and were left rushing to find a solution. The warnings of experts and futurists only added fire to the alarm felt by already panicked companies as many turned to extremely expensive quick fixes. Many of these quick fixes ended up costing billions more than if companies had simply stayed disciplined to phase containment from the beginning. 3. Phase containment can be maintained by acting immediately to any kind of problem as soon as it presents itself. The term "pay a little now, or a lot later" should be applied to every aspect of business along with the realization that even if a maintenance cost may seem expensive at the time, it will end up saving money in the long run. Keeping in close contact with employees and everyone who uses the HRIS software can help keep everyone aware of problems as they present themselves. Part B. 1. Based on the out of date process detailed in figure 4.5 many changes can be made. There are many manual processes required for this HR model and as research has proven manual processes often contain large amounts of human error. By analyzing the current system, businesses can evaluate "where they are now" and what can be done to improve their system. For example a business may use interviews, focus groups, or surveys to help assess their system to see what aspects can be streamlines or eliminated. Looking at Figure 4.5 it may be seen that instead of manually filling out a time card each day, employees could clock in and out with a computer or their hours could be paid through a salary system to avoid any miscalculations, unreadable written information, or typos. The company could download a kind of fact checking system to make sure that the hours employees clocked in and out for were properly documented, eliminating the need for a payroll assistant. By setting up a salary system, there would be no need to hire anyone to calculate payroll, because it would be the same amount of money every time. Then, if an employee notifies payroll of a mistake there will be no need to have to go in and manually recheck what was entered because it would all be electronically calculated. 2. Based on the Hacket Best Practices Benchmark Study of Human Resources' estimate that $17 is wasted in every manual HR transaction this new process can save a company a fortune. If every step in the 6 step model represents a transaction then the company could potentially be wasting $102 for each employee whose payroll they process. With the new improved system the company could save all of this money by eliminating unnecessary transaction steps. If a company pays 10,000 employees once a month, they would save 1,020,000 per month and 12,240,000 per year. 3. Overall, based upon my analysis of this
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Aircraft De Icing Engineering Essay This report explains the results of research into how de-icing operations at Minnesota Saint Paul could be improved. The findings were that this airport should use a combination of infrared heating and antifreeze spraying in order to deice aircraft in a fast, safe, cost effective and environmentally friendly way. The de-icing process is called the drive through method and this report has backed up its investigation through detailed calculations and the use of a decision matrix to compare the benefits of the drive through method against using others. Although there are some problems such as its relatively long payback time of 2.5 years, plus risk the airport may have to pay licence fees due to patents on the technology, the benefits of the drive through method outweigh these drawbacks. One reason for this is that after the payback period the airport will make an annual saving of approximately $7,080,000 INTRODUCTION Rationale for the research The process of removing ice, frost or snow from the surface of an aircraft is known as aircraft de-icing. This is an essential procedure because if these substances accumulate on an airplane they will amplify the drag force that the plane experiences. This will reduce the ability of its wings to produce enough lift force to allow it to take-off or manoeuvre whilst in flight. Also, damage could be caused if a large piece of ice dislodges from the plane and hits sensitive components like its engine. This could lead to passengers losing their lives in a crash and others losing their properties. The Federal Aviation Administration, FAA, regulate all major civil aviation operations in America. One of their rules is that aircraft must be free of ice before takeoff and during flight. Background This report uses Minneapolis Saint Paul (MSP) airport, Minnesota, as its primary case study. This is because aircraft at this airport frequently needs to undergo deciding as a result of the cold climate before, during and after winter in that region. MSP airport spans 3,400 acres, has five runways, five de-icing pads and served more than 32 million travellers in 2009 making it 15th in the United States andÃ 30th in the world in terms of number of passengers served annually. (MSP Airport, 2010) De-icing is currently carried out at MSP airport by operators who spray an ethylene-glycol based aircraft de-icing fluid onto planes. Storm water drains to collect the waste fluid, before it is transported by a truck to a recycling facility to be treated. It needs treatment because its high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) makes it harmful to the environment. Research Aims and Objectives This investigation aims to find a method and chemical to use for de-icing planes which is more environmentally friendly, cheaper and faster than that which is currently used in MSP airport. It should be a total solution technology which eliminates/reduces all the problems that the current de-icing method causes without producing detrimental side effects. These aims will be achieved by completing the following objectives: Identify a substitute de-icing fluid which has the same/better de-icing functionality but costs less and is safer than the one currently used in MSP airport. Find a better way to recycle the waste de-icing fluid Ensure that the new substitute chemical allow de-icing fluid to be recycled Find another way to remove snow from aircraft GENERIC DESIGN PROCESS Organisations often use a generic design process as they turn a product idea into a manufactured item. Using a systematic, well organised designed process helps to reduce the research and development time that a novel product experiences. The design team for this project used a generic design process and the actions that they took at each stage are detailed below: Product Planning First the team used product planning to help make that reliable and valid research was carried out straight away. This started this by withholding a discussion in which they clarified the aim and objectives of the project. Then they identified their strengths and weaknesses in relation to these objectives to help them choose which duties they were responsible for. Finally they agreed upon timescales in which to achieve each objective. Identification of Customer Needs Customers needs guided the teams product innovations that were found. The team held interviews with a representative from each major stakeholder group in the airline industry, such as the airline manager and spray operator, to allow them to voice their needs. This made it easier for the team to set product specifications and design a product that they would approve. Establishment of Product Specifications The customer needs were ranked in order of their importance. The rank of each need was proportional to a weighting, w, which was later used in a decision matrix. This information was used to generate product specifications which were further defined using metrics. Generation of product ideas A brainstorm was held to generate product ideas. This was useful because it encouraged the team to build ideas on top of one another. From this they saw similarities between ideas and linked some of them to define a total solution technology. Selection of product ideas A decision matrix was used to quantitatively compare the importance of each customer need in relation to the product ideas. The product with the highest score was selected for testing. Testing The total solution technology was further evaluated in terms of its performance and economic viability. Because it was very beneficial its specifications were was sent to manufactures so that they could build a prototype. Figure 1 An illustration of the generic design process Figure 1 illustrates the product design methodology which begins with product planning and ends with testing and manufacture. The dotted lines show that if one stage of the design process did not give advantageous results the team would go one or multiple stages back in order to refine their previous intentions. Then they would advance through each stage of the process again until they reached the final testing and manufacturing stage. This procedure of assessing and re-assessing product developments ensured that poor designs were eliminated or improved before they reached the testing and manufactures stage. NEEDS Various customers have an interest in aircraft de-icing operations; these individuals are referred to as stakeholders. The success of this venture will depend on how well it meets the needs of these individuals. Hence, the team evaluated each stakeholders need using an interview and ranked it according to its importance. Information Gathering The stakeholders were identified on the basis on who will pay for, sell, use and operate the de-icing technology, these included airline pilots and passengers etc. They were interviewed and their responses are summarised below. Spray operator Q1: How do you deice a plane? A container on a truck is filled with de-icing fluid which is mixed with water to a 50% concentration by volume. I sit in an enclosed cabin and heat the fluid onboard the truck to 70oC before I spray it onto the plane until all the ice melts. Airport manager Q2: How important is the BOD of a de-icing fluid? Very important, we pay the treatment works about $0.35 per US gallon and the price goes up if the BOD increases. Our airport is fined if the BOD5 discharged to the environment exceeds 900 tonnes per year. Q3: How long would you expect to wait for a return on your investment? 1.5-2 years Q4: How much does ethylene glycol cost? The average is $5-7 per gallon. Q5: What precautions were taken since your last incident? We thought of retraining staff, but now operations are run by an outsourced business. De-icing pads and a drainage system were installed. Aircraft manager Q6: What do you think of integrating a heating system onto aircraft? Not ideal for commercial planes because its expensive Air traffic controller Q7: How severe is the disruption caused by aircraft de-icing? During the peak of the winter season there are regular delays. Aircraft must be de-iced again if they exceed a holdover time of 5 minutes. Ranking of needs and sanity check The team identified the most important stakeholder needs and ranked them as listed below. Each need was given a weighting, w, according to its rank as part of a sanity check. Table 1 The rank of each stakeholder need and its weighting Need Weight-ing, w Reasons 1) Safety 4 Safety was the top concern of every stakeholder. Aircraft at MSP airport can only carry passengers if they obey safety regulations set by the FAA. 2) Lifetime Cost 3 Some stakeholders disagreed on financial issues regarding how much cash should be spent on certain items. e.g most spray operators would like luxury de-icing cabins whereas airport managers would rather invest the money. However, all stakeholders agreed that no de-icer with a high lifetime cost would be acceptable. 3) Speed 2 Slow de-icing can cause profit losses due to delayed flights. 4) Environmental impact 1 Although the airport will be fined for causing excessive pollution these costs are normally absorbed by customers. ESTABLISHMENT OF PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Most of the needs highlighted by stakeholders were expressed in a qualitative manner. They needed to be converted into specifications in order to avoid trivial yet expensive improvements being made to MSP airport. To do this the worst case de-icing conditions that could potentially take place at MSP airport were defined and as part of sanity check. Next metrics were used establish specifications for product and process design methods that could cope with the worst case de-icing scenarios at the airport. Specification 1 Annual length of operation The dates in which the planes will need to be de-iced ranges from November to early April because on these dates the temperature in Minneapolis Saint Paul is below freezing. Therefore, any new de-icing method must be able to operate through this period of 5 months and 1 week (157 days) every year. (Figure 2) Figure 2- The average lowest temperature in MSP every year from 1971-2000 Specifications 2 The case study aircraft and its ice coverage The mass of ice on a plane was calculated using a worst case scenario, which was that one of the biggest commercial passenger planes; the Boeing-747 (BBC, 2007) needed to be de-iced. It was assumed that the top area of both its wings was covered by a 1cm thick layer of ice. Wing area (Boeing-747) = 541.2 m2 (Airliners, 2010) Ice Thickness = 0.01m Ice Coverage 100% Ã Ã â Volume of ice on wings, Volice = 5.412 m3 (App. 1, Eqn 1) Density of ice, Ã Ã ice = 917kg/m3 (Kotz, 2009) Ã Ã â Mass of ice, = 4962.8 kg (App. 1, Eqn 2) Specifications 3- Heating Duty Latent heat of fusion of ice= 333 kJ/Kg (Bird, 2003) Ã Ã â Minimum heating duty = 1652.6 MJ (App 1, Eqn 3) Specifications 4 The substitute de-icing fluid The atmospheric temperature in MSP airport during the de-icing season is 20oF (-29oC) therefore the substitute ADF freezing point must be less than 20oC in order to maintain its functionality. Additionally it must provide a freezing point depression of more than 20oC as a result of this ambient temperature. All the stakeholders agreed that product safety is of upmost importance, so the substitute ADF should be less toxic than ethylene-glycol. Additionally they agree that the annual raw material costs of the new dicing method should be less than that of the current method. Two ways to do this are to use less dicing fluid per plane in the first instance; this should be less than the 408 gallons per aircraft required by the current de-icing method (App. 1, Eqn. 9), or to recycle the de-icing fluid. GENERATION AND SCREENING OF IDEAS The team worked individually and brainstormed together to help maximise the number of good ideas that were generated. Whilst doing so they reflected upon the product specifications to and stakeholder needs to help screen ideas. De-icing Ideas De-icing boots Rubber boots are attached to the front edges of wings on the plane. The aircraft inflates these boots with air to cause ice that remove ice that has accumulated on them. An unacceptable risk of using this method in MSP is that the system must be activated as soon as a before an large ice layer can form and hit other parts of the plane when it dislodges. Bleed air- In this method hot air from the aircraft engines is blasted on to the ice to melt it. Although this could melt ice very quickly the airport manager at MSP airports commented that integrating heating systems on to aircraft is not ideal for commercial planes because its expensive. Mechanical Scraping/Blowing Employees use brushes, or cloths to physically push ice off the aircraft. This method would be very easy to put into practice at MSP because the equipment the required is very cheap. But it is more likely that damage will be done to airplanes as the employees scrape ice so the resulting aircraft maintenance cost is could be very high. A propylene glycol based de-icing fluid Propylene glycol is a popular de-icing fluid and is regarded as non-toxic, hence it was chosen for further investigation. Decision Matrix The interviews that were conducted with the stakeholders highlighted that some customer needs are more important than others. Although the importance of some specific needs differed in each stakeholder group four needs were consistently rated as essential. These criteria were analysed in a decision matrix with weighing marks taken from Table 1 Table 2- Decision Matrix which focuses on the alternative deinking methods ALTERNATIVES Ethylene Glycol (Benchmark)Ã Propylene Glycol Infrared + Propylene-glycol Criteria Weighting w Rating Score Rating Score Rating Score Safety Ã 5 2 10 4 20 7 35 Lifetime Cost Ã 4 5 20 5 20 6 24 Speed Ã 3 Ã 5 15 Ã 4 16 6 18 Environmental impact Ã 2 Ã 1 2 Ã 5 10 6 14 Total Ã 14 Ã 13 47 Ã 18 66 Ã 25 91 According to this decision matrix the best de-icing solution should be based on a combination of infrared and propylene glycol de-icers is the best as this alternative has the highest sore. The second best method would be to use an ADF which is based on propylene glycol rather than ethylene glycol. SELECTION OF IDEAS A comparison of ethylene-glycol and propylene glycol based de-icing fluids The most freezing point depressants in aircraft de-icing fluids in the US are ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG). Because PG and EG have a similar lifetime cost, in this chapter the chemicals will be compared at a 50% concentration by volume in terms of their safety, de-icing speed and environmental impact because these are three of the most important needs the stakeholders. Safety Ethylene glycol has a relatively high toxicity when compared to Propylene-Glycol. It has been classed by the US congress as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP), if 2268 kg or more escapes into the environment within 24 hours users are obligated to report the event under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCL). However propylene glycol is not classified as a HAP, and users are not required to inform CERCL if it is released. Both chemicals are said to be non-lethal if humans if they are breathed in with air or adsorbed through skin. However, unlike PG, EG is toxic to humans and mammals if it is ingested directly. Even though PG it is regarded as non-toxic it is still a health hazard because it uses oxygen as it biodegrades which could cause some organisms to suffocate. De-icing Speed The freezing point of Propylene-glycol is -34oC which is slightly higher than ethylene-glycol which freezes at -37oC. This is one of the reasons why MSP airport still uses EG. Another is that a lower volume of antifreeze is required for EG to achieve the same freezing point depression as PG. MSP airport suffers severe weather extremes so it needs to use an ADF which is reliable, especially in extremely cold weather as this is generally when it takes longer to deice aircraft Propylene-glycols boiling point is 106oC whereas ethylene glycol has a boiling point of 102.2oC for ethylene glycol. In this case Propylene-glycol is the better choice because it can transfer heat to ice at a higher temperature than ethylene glycol. Discussion There are some drawbacks with regard to using ethylene glycol as a de-icing fluid, especially concerning its environmental impact. But, overall EG and PG have a similar de-icing performance level. The Rate of Melting due to Heat Conduction Alone The ADF is heated to 70oC before it is sprayed onto the plane, this heat alone will cause the ice to melt through heat conduction. The rate of this heating was calculated using equation 1a, 1a) Where Q= is the heat flow rate in the X-direction in kJ/s, A is the area normal to the direction of heat flow in m2, dT/dx is the temperature gradient and K is the thermal conductivity of ice The thermal conductivity of ice at -20oC is 2.39 W/mK, the area normal to the direction of heat flow is equal to the wing area of the Boeing 747 =541.2m2, the temperature change that occurs is (70oC- -20oc)=90oC and the thickness of the ice x is 0.01m. Hence the rate of heat transfer by the temperature of the de-icing fluid alone is 2a) The sensible heat is kJ (App. 1, Eqn 12) The latent heat of fusion is 1652612.4 kJ, (App.1, Eqn 3) Summing the above gives the amount of het required to melt the ice on a Boeing 747 from a starting temperature of -20oC which is Hence minimum time that it would take to melt the ice on the plane by heat conduction alone is This is a very fast time, especially as according to the project brief, de-icing at MSP airport normally takes 10 minutes per plane. One reason reason for this difference is due to the fact that the ADF fluid is not always in full contact with ice, only its bottom surface is. Additionally these calculations assume that heat transfer occurs over the whole of each wing evenly, which is not the case in real life because de-icing fluid is sprayed onto the wing in different locations systematically. A final cause of this difference could be due to the fact that snow has a lower heat conductivity, k, than ice and so any snow on a plane would lower the rate of heat transfer from the ADF. TOTAL SOLUTION TECHNOLOGY Drive-Through De-icing Figure 3 An illustration of the drive through de-icing technology The final design concept was to conduct de-icing operations as a drive through system. First the aircraft enters the Infrared hangar where and warm air blows snow of its wings whilst they are heated by infrared radiation for a typical duration of 5-10 minutes. Ice on the plane melts onto an inclined slope and the wastewater is channelled into the waste collection zone. Water is channelled through existing storm water pipes into infrastructure to the located under the floor of the spraying and waste collection area. The wastewater is pumped out and transferred by a truck into the airports detention ponds. When the wastewater has been removed compression plugs are removed and the plane moves into the spraying area. Here it is sprayed with propylene glycol for up to 5 minutes to help prevent any ice forming on it before takeoff. The propylene glycol drains into a separate area of the collection chamber and is pumped to a detention pond until it is due to be recycled. Finally the compression plus are reinstalled so the system is ready to deice another plane. Recycling Solution Minneapolis currently uses three Glycol Recovery Vehicles to collect wastewater. Using the IR facility eliminates the need to deice aircraft using glycol by around 90%, so no more of these vehicles will need to be bought if the new technology is adopted. Also the airport has saved capital costs by using their existing storm water drains to collect both glycol and storm water. These storm drains can and should continue to be used if MSP airport adopts the Drive-Through De-icing system to save cash and time during the installation of the new system. According to (Big book) Careful management of the retention systems enables the airport to collect enough wastewater with high glycol concentrations to make glycol recycling/recovery economically viable. The majority of glycol which is recycled is sold to manufacturers who use it in other glycol-based products. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC VIABLITY Rate of return on investment (ROI) 3a) Payback Time 3b) =2.5 years Unfortunately the payback time on the drive through de-icing method is not fast enough to satisfy the Airport Managers at MSP who expect a payback time of 1.5-2 years. A higher rate of return on investment would reduce the payback time so it would be wise to look into additional ways to reduce the cost of de-icing using this technology, and ways to improve its efficiency. Patent issues Because this total solution technology uses de-icing methods which have been used in industry previously, but it combines them in a unique way it is difficult to assess whether or not it can be patented. Moreover, it is expected that it would take a long time to patent the product even if it were possible because of its complexity and use of old de-icing ideas. The author has recommended that MSP airport consults a lawyer regarding these matters if they do not need to use the de-icing solution immediately. If MSP airport do need to use the technology immediately they might have to pay license fees to one or more patent owners. CONCLUSION The findings from this investigation have shown that the solution technology that MSP airport should use to improve its aircraft de-icing solution involves using infrared heating and a propylene glycol as a substitute chemical for ethylene-glycol. The process is called the drive through method and the major advantages of this hybrid solution are that it meets the needs of its stakeholders by being safe, having a low lifetime cost, fast aircraft de-icing rate and low environmental impact. Evidence of this has been provided through a decision matrix and several mathematical evaluations. Unfortunately this solution has a payback time of 2.5 years, so research should be carried out to reveal how to make the annual rate of return on the investment higher. Finally, this hybrid system uses patented technology so MSP airport might have to pay licence fees for a number of years if it used the drive through method. However, after the payback period the annual saving of $70,844,300 per year outweighs any of these drawbacks. Further Recommendations Find ways to cut the operating cost of the Drive-Through De-icing system as this will lift the annual rate of return that this technology provides. If the rate of return is high enough the payback time will drop below 2 years and the airport managers in MSP will have this need fulfilled. Use hot air to blow snow off the aircraft in the IR hangar. This will help to melt the snow and ice too, however the cost of warmin+ 3.0g air may offset the benefit of a faster de-icing time. Nb, as shown by the weightings, w, in Table 1, the lifetime cost of the technology is more important that the de-icing speed that it provides. REFERENCES Books and Journals Bird J.O., 2003, Science for engineering, pp. 205, Newnes, 2003, UK Ketler P., Mosher M., Scott A., 2008, Chemistry: The Practical Science, media enhanced edition, Cengage Learning, pp. 478, UK Kotz J.C., Paul T., Townsend R.J., 2009, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Cengage Learning, pp. 15, USA Tsokos K.A., 2010, Cambridge Physics for the IB Diploma, pp. 172, Cambridge University Press, UK Sinnot R.K., 2005, Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Series: Chemical Engineering Design, pp. 439, Butterworth-Heinmann, UK Online Resources MSP Airport, 2010, About Us, http://www.mspairport.com/about-msp.aspx, 24/10/2010 RSS Weather, 2003, Minneapolis-St. Paul, http://www.rssweather.com/climate/Minnesota/Minneapolis-St.Paul, 23/10/10 Airliners.Net, 2010, The Boeing 747-400, http://www.airliners.net/aircraft-data/stats.main?id=100, 20/10/2010 BBC, 25/10/2007, A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7061164.stm, 19/10/2010 Energy Information Administration, October 2010, Electric Power Monthly, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm.pdf, 15/10/2010 Wings Magazine, 2007, Infrared De-icing: Giving glycol a run for its money, http://www.wingsmagazine.com/content/view/1325/38/, 23/10/10 APPENDICIES Appendix 1 Specifications 2 -The case study aircraft and its ice coverage The mass of ice on a plane was calculated using a worst case scenario, which was that one of the biggest commercial passenger planes; the Boeing-747 (BBC, 2007) needed to be de-iced. It was assumed that the top area of both its wings was covered by a 1cm thick layer of ice. Wing area (Boeing-747) = 541.2 m2 Ice Thickness = 0.01m Ice Coverage 100% of wing area (1) Density of ice, Ã Ã ice = 917kg/m3 (Kotz, 2009) (2) Specifications 3 -Heating Duty The ice on the aircraft needed to be provided with enough energy to overcome its 333kJ/Kglatent heat of fusion, L, to melt. The amount of heat energy, Q, required to achieve this was calculated using Equation 3 (3) (Bird, 2003) Specifications 4 The substitute de-icing fluid In this section the volume of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol needed to deice a single Boeing-747 will be calculated and compared. The metrics are based upon a 50% by volume solution of each chemical. Volume of Ethylene Glycol Required The freezing point depression of an ideal solution is given by the formula (5) Where Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ Tf represents the freezing point depression, m, is the solute concentration and Kf represents the freezing point depression constant of water which is 1.86Ã °KÃ ·kg/mol (Kilter P., Mosher M. and Scott A. Andrew scott, 2008) The desired freezing point depression, Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ Tf is 20oC because winter temperatures in MSP fall to that temperature, according to the project brief. (6) The number of moles of glycol required to achieve the freezing point depression: (7) The chemical formula of ethylene-glycol is CH2OHCH2OH Mr Carbon = 12, Oxygen=16, Hydrogen=1 Ã Ã âMr ethylene glycol = 2*16+2*12 + 1*6= 62 g/mol Hence the mass of ethylene-glycol required per plane is: (8) The density of UCAR ADF at 20oC is 8.9 lb/gal (US) (1.07 kg/L) (SAE AMS 1424 Ethylene Glycol-Based Type I Fluids page 8) Hence the volume of ethylene-glycol required is at least 408 US gallons (9) Because the de-icing fluid used in MSP airport is 50% ethylene-glycol and about 50% water, de-icing a single plane would need double the amount of ADF which works out at 6,184 litres. The cost of ethylene glycol per aircraft In general the chemical components in de-icing fluids, such as water, have a total cost which is substantially less than that of ethylene-glycol. Hence the cost of these components in de-icing fluid solutions as deemed insignificant and ignored. According to the airport manager that was interviewed the minimum cost of a gallon of ethylene glycol is $5 per US gallon (10) In MSP airport there is an average of 293 takeoffs per day from 5 de-icing pads (MSP Airport, 2010) Assuming that during the de-icing season in MSP lasts 157 days and every plane needs to be de-iced the annual cost of ADF is approximately (11) Sensible heat required According to the project brief winter temperatures in Minneapolis Saint Paul fall to-20oC. Ice must be brought to its melting point of 0oC before it can undergo a phase change from solid to liquid. Where Cp is the specific heat capacity of ice at -20oC which is 2 kJ/kg/K, (Tsokos KA, 2010), m is the mass of ice and Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ T is the temperature difference (12) According to Wingsmagazine (2010) Ian Sharkey, the director of de-icing services, with Radiant Aviation Services stated that during an ice storm on March 15-16, 2007 his team had an average aircraft block time (aircraft brakes on to brakes off) of less than 43 minutes for large aircraft hence it was assumed that the Boeing 747 could be de-iced in this timeframe as well. This information was used to estimate the power that the IR deice would need to bring the ice on an aircraft from -15oC to 0oC in 43 minutes, (13) Latent heat required Next was calculated which is the power needed to melt the ice on the aircraft at 0oC in 47 minutes. (14) Hence the total power needed to melt ice on the aircraft in 43 minutes by using infrared deink technology, QIR is (15) To make the value of QIR more realistic some assumptions concerning the amount of energy loss, between the heat source and the wing were added. From this the extra power that the laser will need to give out in order to overcome the inferred energy lost as between the source and its destination (transport efficiency) and the energy lost due to reflection by the ice on the surface of the wing (absorption efficiency) was calculated. Laser device efficiency, ÃÅ½Ã ·laser=0.33, Transport efficiency, ÃÅ½Ã ·transport = 0.75 Absorption efficiency, ÃÅ½Ã ·absorbtion =0.75 The laser device, transport and absorption efficiencies reduce the amount of energy that heats the ice. This is called the efficiency loss, 1-ÃÅ½Ã ·i, and it was calculated as follows , (16) Hence, (17) Similarly, (18) Hence, the percentage extra energy, ,required to cover for these energy losses is (19) In real terms
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Every thing in life has a question, every question in life has an answer, and every answer in life has a reason. My question is, why be an anesthesiologist? Well why be anything, why be parents, why be young, why is the world getting more and more violent. Because we want to be, we have to be, and that's just where the world is taking us. I want to help people I want to make a difference in the way that people feel. I could very easily be a psychologist but it takes one to know one and I don't want to do that. Being a doctor I have the chance to help people of all ages and I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be compromising my physical and mental health. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Going into surgery knocked out by an anesthetic is like stepping on to an airplane, because you are temporarily putting your life into what you hope are trained professionals. Anesthesia has revolutionized the way we look at surgery. Hundreds of new, better and safer anesthetics have been introduced in the past 40 years. Just think of how it would be to be one of the doctors to bring one those new advances into the world. How many millions of people would you be helping? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Science is rapidly growing in the medical field every day their is a new discovery of a drug, or a procedure that works better than the old, so their for to be a part of the advancing age would be more gratifying than many other things that I can think of. An estimated 15 million people undergo anesthesia each year with only the rarest of complications. The most interesting thing about this miracle is that their is not a person on the face of this earth that can tell you what it is about the drugs we use that makes them do what they do. We don't even know how they work, or understand how they work. Yes this is a very scary thing but just think of the rewards and benefits that you could have if you could come with the answer to all those questions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The fact is, is that we don't know any more now about anesthetics now than we did 150 years ago when we first started using them. Like many revolutions in medicine, anesthesia was first discovered by chance in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s.
Monday, November 11, 2019
* What is criminology? A social science studying crime and related phenomenon such as law making, criminal behavior, victimization and punishment Discipline of criminology is a recent development Most ideas and concepts we now have about crime and criminals emerged over last 2 or 3 centuries Modern criminology is multi-disciplinary (inter-disciplinary) Influenced by sociology, psychology, and biologyThe fascination with crime Crime is popular topic for newspapers, TV shows , books and movies There is little relationship between crime news and actual amount of crimes Media focus primarily on violent crimes, even though such crimes forms only smart part of all criminal activity Appears as though police solve more crimes and arrest more cirminals than they do in reality The appeal of crime stories and crime newsCrime related stories are often dramatic and lurid Deal with moral questions of good vs evil Criminals appear in stories as insane or dangerous psychopaths Stories happen in shor t time span- between newscasts or newspaper editions Easy for the public to understand FelsonÃ¢â¬â¢s 10 fallacies about crime Book 1. the dramatic Fallacy o keep ratings high, media seek strange/violent incidents to report/create dramas around murder makes up less than 1% of all crime, yet from watching TV or reading the papers, it seems like a commonplace events seems that most murders are well-planned, grisly affairs, or they happen solely by random chance in fact, most murders start as arguments that escalate into violence most crimes are relatively minor property crimes 2. the cops and courts fallacy police work made to look more dangerous and challenging than it actually is increased policing found to be of limited value ost crimes are not reported, most of crimes that are reported are not solved by police very few elaborate court trials (charges dropped, plea bargaining, guilty plea) 3. the Ã¢â¬Å"not-meÃ¢â¬ fallacy most people think they could never (or would never) comm it a crime however, many people have shoplifted, smoked marijuana, driven when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re impaired, or gone joy-riding in a car most people violate at least some laws sometimes, even though they may not get caught or end up with a criminal record 4. the innocent youth fallacy endency to view younger people as being Ã¢â¬Å"pureÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"innocentÃ¢â¬ in reality, teen years are the most active years for criminal activity majority of crimes committed by younger offenders younger offenders often are more dangerous than older offenders 5. the ingenuity fallacy tendency to think criminals are more clever than they really are in reality, lightweight, high value items have made crime even more simple most criminals take little planning, little skill, and almost no time to commit 6. the organized crime fallacy endency to view crime as more organized and conspiratorial than it really is most criminals act quickly, avoid contact with co-offenders, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t do a lot of wor k or planning dealing with Ã¢â¬Å"organizedÃ¢â¬ criminals makes what law enforcement officials are doing seem more important and sophisticated than its really is 7. the juvenile gang fallacy juvenile gangs nowhere near as sinister as the media and law officials make them out to be loosely structured lots of so-called Ã¢â¬Å"membersÃ¢â¬ just hanging out on the periphery crime that such Ã¢â¬Å"gangsÃ¢â¬ engage in is Ã¢â¬Å"pettyÃ¢â¬ and disorganized 8. he welfare state fallacy wrong to blame crime on unemployment and poverty no evidence to show that government hand-outs or government programs do anything to decease crime when the economy improves, or when government hand-outs increase, statistics show that crime goes up too 9. the agenda fallacy many individuals and groups blame crime on declining morality; say that a healthy does of moral and religious values is what criminals and society really needs most criminals already know right from wrong, and simply choose to igno re it, especially when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not being observed 10. he whatever-you-think fallacy wrong to think that some crime is Ã¢â¬Å"subjective, and is only regarded as crime because of labeling, media attention or influence of interest groups laws are actually quite similar across different countries and different social systems criminologists who talk about negative effects of labeling and how moral problems are turned into Ã¢â¬Å"crime-control problemsÃ¢â¬ are misguided and side-stepping their responsibility to help solve the crime problem crime myths and realities * * * myth| * reality| Most criminals are dangerous and clever| * Most criminals resemble their victims| * Most criminals are pathological individuals who kill at random| * Most crimes are routine, mundane and often trivial| * Police investigators are clever and effective| * Most crimes are not detected, or not reported, most go unsolved| * Most crimes are violent| * Only a small portion of crime is violent| * The el derly are more likely to be victimized| * Young, low SES males are more likely to be victimized| * Victimization are rates going up| * Victimization rates are going down| onceptualizations of crime crime as a legal construct crime as a violation of social norms debate between the consensus vs. and conflict models the legal construct model Sacco and Kennedy say the dominant way of thinking about crime is in legal terms Crime is conceptualized relative to the concept of law- crime is breaking the law Because committing criminal act amounts to breaking the law, it is subject to prosecution and punishment The four main components a.Actus Reus: a real event, in which somebody has committed or failed to commit an act b. Men Rea: criminal intent; you must have the intent to commit the act c. No legal defense or justification d. Must be contrary to a provision of criminal law Crime as normative violation pictures Mala in Se Mala in se: Ã¢â¬Å"something bad or evil in itselfÃ¢â¬ Laws that criminalize acts most societies and cultures agree are inherently wrong, e. g. , murder and incest Mala ProhibitaMala prohibita: something that is deemed to be wrong or criminal only because it is prohibited Acts where there might be considerable disagreement from society to society re: their legality Concensus vs. conflicy * consensus| * conflict| * Society as a functional organism| * Society and social transformation rooted in social conflict| * Norms/expectations based on shared values/interests| * Society not organic or natural. But forced upon us| * Those who are different (e. g. ,criminals) are deemed to be abnormal| * Society/laws based on values and interests of those with the power|
Saturday, November 9, 2019
A Study On Social Inclusion Adults Social Policy Essay Essay Example A Study On Social Inclusion Adults Social Policy Essay Essay A Study On Social Inclusion Adults Social Policy Essay Essay saw the closing of these establishments. This saw the motion of grownups with larning disablements out of establishments into being cared for in the community, either by their ain households or in little supported lodging being cared for by the voluntary sector. Ã¢â¬Å"The Same as YouÃ¢â¬ scheme of 2000 ( Ref 7 ) [ three ] by the Scottish executive is committed to supplying equity, equality and societal inclusion for grownups with larning disablements. As a consequence of this scheme the local community set up the Ã¢â¬Å"GroupÃ¢â¬ to supply socialization to assist with societal inclusion of grownups with acquisition disablements through one to one befriending and group activities. Dan lived within a atomic household unit where he was given the basic human demands of nutrient, shelter, vesture, love and socialization to populate until the age of 6. He was born into a society where it was common for immature kids with larning disablements particularly those with Downs Syndrome to be institutionalised. There was besides a societal stigma assigned to those with learning and physical disablements. Dan s household insisted in caring for him at place until school age, but his educational demands where non met. He besides suffers from Ã¢â¬Å"anxiety attacksÃ¢â¬ which his male parent says he developed at the age if six, when taken into the auto for the first clip. He reacted by floging out and drawing hair. The Ã¢â¬Å"anxiety attacksÃ¢â¬ were given by his male parent as an alibi for Dan`s riotous behavior. His behavior was tempered by his female parent, who had to be systematically by his side snuggling him and keeping his manus during his dying minutes. His parents did everything for him, until he was institutionalised. Here, he grew up where privateness, pick, self-respect where lacking and he was non allowed to take hazards. Life accomplishments, instruction and route work where non given. More frequently than non in the yesteryear, these Ã¢â¬Å"patientsÃ¢â¬ where drugged if they showed any marks of riotous behavior. Being Ã¢â¬Å"locked upÃ¢â¬ life in Nightingale wa rds with communal life and lavatories may hold besides contributed to his Ã¢â¬Å"anxiety attacksÃ¢â¬ . These Ã¢â¬Å"anxiety attacksÃ¢â¬ still causes Dan to act in a ambitious mode if he feels hemmed in, particularly in crowded topographic points with no obvious agencies of flight. After 1995, when authorities schemes of shuting big establishments were implemented through the ( Ref8 ) Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and its amendments of 2003 Dan was given a place within supported adjustment as his male parent was elderly. Dan did non like to travel out unless his male parent was with him and tended non to interact with anyone when introduced. His Ã¢â¬Å"anxiety attacksÃ¢â¬ causes him to be agitated when his modus operandis alteration. He finds it hard to do picks unless they are limited and is non lament on seeking anything new. He is unable to read or compose, he has no life skills e.g unable to do a cup of tea, do a piece of toast, store or clean his place, he is unable to traverse the route without aid. The physical developmental phase Dan has reached is that of an grownup but the emotional phase is that of childhood between 2-12 old ages of age, likely nearer the age of seven or eight. He has been populating out with the big establishment for six old ages now but has non learned to alter his behavior consequently. This may be as a consequence of being told by his support workers that he can non make certain things as they deem certain activities to be a hazard. Staffing jobs besides contribute to the deficiency of his alteration in behavior as clip restraints in assisting Dan larn new accomplishments are frequently given as an alibi for staff non being able to help Dan try new things. So, I believe he is still institutionalised although he lives in smaller community shared adjustment. He was given no pick as to where he would populate, who he would be sharing with or who would be back uping him. With the aid of his household, before being institutionalised he was able to run into the bottom three phases as seen in Maslow`s hierarchy of demands pyramid. ( Ref9 ) [ four ] Abraham Maslow was a humanist psychologist who developed this theoretical account between the 1940s and 1950`s. He stated that human demands can be arranged in a measure ladder pyramid and that the lower degree demands must be satisfied before higher degrees can be met. This theoretical account consisted of eight phases. He stated that we are all motivated by demand as evolved over 1000s of old ages. He stated that we must fulfill these demands in bend, get downing with the first. The first demand is the physiologicalneed which is e.g holding nutrient, O, H2O, etc, the demands to let our organic structures to last. The 2nd demand is that ofphysiological and physical security, whereby there is protection from possible risky fortunes and objects. The 3rd demand is belonging and love, which is being portion of a group of household and friends in a loving state of affairs with trust credence and affection.The 4th demand is esteemwhich is regard of ego and others. The 5th demand is self realization which is gaining personal potency. The 5th demand is Cognitive demands with cognition and apprehension. The 6th demand is Aesthetic demands which is the grasp of symmetricalness, beauty, order and signifier. The 7th demand is self- actulisationwhich is gaining 1s full potency and the 8th demand is transcendency which is assisting others to carry through their possible. Dan, as functionalist sociologist ( Ref10 ) Talcott Parsons ( 1902-1979 ) argued, will hold gained his primary socialization and emotional stableness within a atomic household of two parents, a female parent and male parent, plus his siblings. Primary socialization can be defined as a agency by which the norms and values of society are taught to kids and they learn to accept these values within the household. The functionalist sociologists believe that society can be compared to a life organic structure, with different variety meats ( establishments ) holding different maps yet all working together to maintain the organic structure ( society ) alive.They consider the household to be a little version of society which operates as a societal, economic and emotional unit. The struggle theoretician believe that society is separated into two categories, with the middle class and the labor who are at odds with one another. The household, struggle theoreticians province is merely another societal establishments which contribute to the credence of societal inequality. Every member takes difference functions at certain times in the household life rhythm and struggle happens within the household when a individual challenges those functions, e.g adolescents disputing parental authorization. Dan lived in an establishment from the age of six so his secondary socialization was to larn to populate within the confines of the establishment. This socialization would hold been radically different from a household state of affairs. ( ref11 ) Research showed that concerns grew about the attention given by establishments Ã¢â¬Å"quality of attention provided by these establishments in footings of gross physical want ( overcrowding, hapless nutrient, vesture and environment ) , maltreatment ( ill-treatment, larceny of ownerships and over-use of medicine and restraint ) and neglect and inaction ( deficiency of attention, deficiency of contact and stimulation and extended periods of detachment and isolationÃ¢â¬ staff and client interaction and battle in meaningful activities would hold been poor.As a consequence, no opportunities where available to let Dan to travel to the following degree of Maslows Pyramid of Needs of ego regard. ( Ref 12 ) Dan was the youngest member of the household and so harmonizing to Alfred Adler this would hold affected the type of personality that he would develop subsequently on in life. The youngest are known to acquire their ain manner and to hold a stronger parent bond, which Dan did Have as he was overprotected and indulged before hospitalization. But, this cocooning can besides be claustrophobic. But, by being institutionalised, harmonizing to Erikson, his environment would besides hold affected Dan`s development and have had an impact on his behavior. The behavior Dan frequently displays can be explained by the behaviorist theory, which was named ( Ref 13 ) Ã¢â¬Å"Learned HelplessnessÃ¢â¬ . While experimenting on Canis familiariss utilizing Pavlov`s theory of Classical Conditioning, which shows links between the stimulation and the response. Seligman discovered that erudite behavior is a consequences of the belief that the person`s actions are ineffectual. Peoples who have lived in Institutions have learned non to anticipate to hold any control over their lives. Behavioristic theoreticians believe that if behavior is learned, so it can be unlearned. Lev Vygotsky and Russian cognitive psychologist believed that development was guided by civilization and interpersonal communicating with important grownups. Bing institutionalised will hold reduced Dan`s opportunities of holding regular of import communicating with a important grownup. Vygotsky stated that to larn a scope of undertakings that are excessively hard on their ain, a ki d must be shown or guided by person who is more knowing. This became known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Zone of proximal developmentÃ¢â¬ . This assumes that the kid has the ability to memorize and the capacity to remember the erudite experience. This is non ever possible in some with a learning disablement. In the attention puting where Dan spent his life, the opportunities of a kid being challenged to larn new accomplishments would hold been diminished or non- existent. Vygotsky was the first to detect that societal isolation caused a hold in both societal and cognitive development. The Ã¢â¬Å"anxiety attacksÃ¢â¬ Dan suffers from can besides be explained via Operant Conditioning suggested by B.F.Skinner ( 1953 ) . Operant Conditioning is where behavior is followed by a effect. His behavior of floging out when he is dying is a consequence of positive support where ab initio this bad behavior was rewarded by having physical and emotional contact from his female parent before institutionalisation and ulterior attending from nursing staff in the establishment. Positive support is where the effect is a positive result. Now, Dan`s support staff attempt to guarantee that Dan does non come into a state of affairs that may do him dying. After the decease of his aged female parent Dan relied wholly on his aged male parent for any continued socialization, as his siblings had long left place to put up their ain household life. ( stats to be put in ) His male parent feared Dan would go stray, particularly as his male parent was going less able to take Dan out. Dan was introduced to fall in the Group by his male parent in an effort to present him to new friends, increase his assurance and better his ego regard. His clip at the group has seen his assurance addition. After traveling out into the community, Dan was instead introspective and diffident and would merely travel out in the company of his male parent. This concerned his 90 twelvemonth old male parent greatly, and so his male parent came to our administration in the hope that we could increase Dan`s societal circle. Dan was assessed by being asked a figure of inquiries utilizing PIES to set up what his Physical, Intellectual, Emotional, and Social demands were. This information was put into his activity program which we use alternatively of a Care Plan. As under the NHS and Community Care ( Scotland ) Act 1990 everyone is entitled to a attention program. Dan will hold such a program set up by the societal work section. To increase his societal circle as requested by his male parent, we included him in a figure of activities which has expanded his range of societal activity and made him less stray. Dan`s physical demands are met by societal services, but his rational demands of mental stimulation, his emotional demands of necessitating to increase his ego regard and his societal demands of societal interaction require attending. Dan has already improved his societal accomplishments through art by now pass oning good with our staff and is acute to take his work place to demo to his household and carers. His male parent has commented on how the communicating accomplishments of Dan have improved and his assurance has increased. Remembering Maslow`s Hierarchy of Needs, I had assessed that Dan would profit from making the 4th phase Esteem Needs. I felt an activity that would assist to better his assurance, his communicating accomplishments and do him less dying in a big group state of affairs would be good. I spoke to him and observed him reply my inquiries.One of my inquiries gave him a pick of activities to seek, I found that the activity he was most interested in was art. I mentor both at the art group and on an single footing, which helps grownups with larning disablements gain new accomplishments, addition assurance, better ego regard, socialization and ego realization through creativeness. Carl Gustav Jung a Swiss head-shrinker B.1875 to D. 1961 encouraged patients to utilize art to convey their unconscious emotions. He stated that ( Ref14 ) Ã¢â¬Å"drawing, picture, and mold can be used to convey unconscious stuff to visible radiation. Once a series has become dramatic, it can easy go through over into the auditory or lingual domains and give rise to duologues and the similar. ( 1941 ) My purpose was to seek to set get bying mechanisms in topographic point to let him to be able to take portion in the ranked unit activity which was to let him to make a work of art and to exhibit at our Malawi Awareness Evening, which we expected to be busy. This activity is to take topographic point some hebdomads off so it was of import for me to set up new art activities over a period of clip, to let him to derive assurance in being portion of a big group. My end through these activities was to let Dan the opportunity to increase his assurance and communicating accomplishments and to develop get bying mechanisms to let him to cover with his fright of big groups. I have used the ( Ref 7 ) task-centred theoretical account in be aftering this exercising ; this is a short-run job work outing attack over a short period. This had five phases- Problem Identification ( appraisal ) , Agreement, Planning ends, Achieving Tasks and Evaluation. Here, the client takes concrete action to work out the job. The Initial interview or stage allowed Dan to show his demand to hold more assurance when in a room with more people in order to be able to bask more activities. He wanted to finish a picture and to be present at its exhibition. To accomplish these ends, we agreed on the stairss and undertakings that allowed Dan to achieve his end. We emphasised the undertakings that were required to be completed to let Dan to exhibit his work of art and hold on timescales for the undertakings. Other interviews will took topographic point to guarantee that we were on path and that Dan felt safe and confident making the in agreement undertakings. With Dan`s understanding we decided to hold an hourly one to one befriending art session of three one hr Sessionss per hebdomad over four hebdomads and to increase these Sessionss to go a group session. To make this I needed to slowly present more and more people to the group. These were other service users, staff and voluntaries. With understanding of everyone involved I brought people in one at a clip each session. I did this by giving each person a day of the month and clip to fall in us at the Ã¢â¬Å"GroupÃ¢â¬ premises. I hoped that by the terminal of the four hebdomads he would be able to sit in a room merrily with at least 12 noisy people. He had to hold a positive experience and to hold a positive association with the group. Dan enjoyed a regular cup of tea and a cocoa biscuit, so I introduced this positive experience to him in the group puting while he was painting. I ensured he sat confronting the door and informed him that he was able to go forth the room at any clip. I sat him at the terminal of the tabular array to guarantee that he did non experience hemmed in. Mentions [ I ] Mention 1: Data Protection Act 1998. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/Acts1998/ukpga_19980029_en_1 [ two ] Reference 2: Regulation of attention Act ( Scotland ) 2001 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/acts2001/asp_20010008_en_1 Mention 3: Health and Safety at Work Act 1974: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/hswa.htm Mention 4: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/learning/learning_disabilities.shtml # What is a larning disablement? Reference5: NHS and Community Care Act 1990 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts1990/ukpga_19900019_en_1 Mention 6: The Human Rights Act 1998: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/ukpga_19980042_en_1: Mention 7: The Same as You scheme: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scotland.gov.uk/ldsr/docs/tsay-01.asp Mention 8: Disability Discrimination Act 1995: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2005/en/ukpgaen_20050013_en_1.htm Mention 9: Maslow: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm [ three ] Reference 10: Talcott Parsons: Elizabeth Bingham + . ( 2009 ) . Sociology of Family. In: Heinemann HNC in Social Care. Edinburgh: Heinemann. 124 -125. Mention 11: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kent.ac.uk/tizard/staff/documents/Mansell % 202003 % 20JARID % 20Resident % 20involvement.pdf Mention 12: Elizabeth Udall. ( 1996 ) . How the household picking order affects you. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.independent.co.uk/life-style/how-the-family-pecking-order-affects-you-1363578.html. Last accessed 28/03/10. [ four ] Reference 13: Elizabeth Bingham + . ( 2009 ) . Working in Partnership with people who have a Learning Disability.. In: Heinemann HNC in Social Care. Edinburgh: Heinemann. 266 -267. Mention 14: Cathy A. Malchiodi. ( 2007 ) . Creativity- Pulling on Process. In: McGraw-Hill Art therapy Sourcebook. 2nd erectile dysfunction. New York USA: McGraw-Hill. 65.